Explained: Mercury crosses 50, this is the trailer of scorching heat! Monsoon comes to India due to 'boy-girl dance' in the sea 16000 kilometers away

Ananya Shroff
8 Min Read

New Delhi: Peru is a small country in South America. It was in the early 1600s, when fishermen in Peru, surrounded by the Pacific Ocean, were casting nets for fish, they noticed that the sea water some distance from the coast was getting extremely hot. The local Spanish immigrants there called this sea current El Niño, which means little boy in Spanish. It was also called the child of Jesus Christ, because this phenomenon often occurs during Christmas. The phenomenon of El Niño is not regular, so it is very difficult to predict it. It occurs regularly at an interval of 2 to 7 years. Scientists started using El Niño to understand irregular and rapid climate change. Recently the Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) has said that there may be heavy rains in the next three months June, July and August.

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Understanding El Nino and La Nina

El Nino and La Nina are very complex weather patterns. In fact, when there is a change in the sea temperature in any part of the world, these weather patterns like El Nino and La Nina are seen. Understand it like this, the sea temperature in the Pacific Ocean suddenly starts increasing on the coast of Peru, about 16 thousand kilometers away from India. After some time this temperature starts cooling down. This weakens the trade winds, which usually blow from east to west.

The country is in the grip of severe heat these days. The heatwave has made the atmosphere even hotter

Scientists dance with changing sea surface temperatures

According to a report by the Earth Observatory of the US space agency NASA, as soon as the temperature of the sea surface changes frequently, the weather conditions also change. The cycle of rain begins. A special kind of 'scientific dance' begins between the sea and the environment. It has two phases – when the sea surface starts heating up, it is called El Nino and the condition of cooling is called La Nina. When both the phases reach their peak, they are called the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycle.

In many places in India, the mercury has reached close to or above 50

What effect does El Nino have on the weather?

Dr. Sana Rahman, Assistant Professor in the Department of Environmental Studies at Janki Devi College, Delhi University, says that when the water in the central and eastern tropical parts of the Pacific Ocean starts getting warm, then El Niño starts developing. During the development of El Niño, the trade winds become weak. Warm water is pushed eastward towards the west coast of America. This increases the humidity in the air, which leads to heavy rains. Seasonal changes are seen in the rest of the world, especially in the countries around the Pacific Ocean. On the other hand, in areas where the temperature remains warm, there is more rainfall than average.

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Is there any connection between severe heat in India and El Nino?

Dr. Sana Rehman says that El Nino has a deep connection with the severe heat in India. When seasonal changes occur due to El Nino, the monsoon in India is delayed or the monsoon rain is very less. The north-western region of the country i.e. Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Gujarat and some parts of Madhya Pradesh are extremely dry areas. Here rain occurs as an energy absorber. Water has the ability to hold energy. Since there are not many rivers or waterfalls, lakes in these areas, drought occurs more often here. This is the reason why hot winds or Loo blow in these areas. Extreme weather is also seen in these areas.

Dr. Sana Rehman

El Nino is also the reason behind the change in monsoon

The sudden rise in temperature in the Pacific Ocean activates the monsoon in India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. The reason for heavy rains in June, July and August is that the effect of these hot winds i.e. El Nino will reduce and the effect of La Nina i.e. cold winds will increase. Actually, all the seas are not the same. The behaviour of the seas keeps changing due to reasons like temperature and salinity. This difference in temperature also becomes the reason for the change in monsoon. Global warming is the major reason behind the change in temperature. The increasing pollution day by day, the excessive use of greenhouse gases like CFC used in AC has increased the temperature of the earth, due to which there are floods somewhere, severe heat somewhere and drought somewhere.

Navbharat TimesJune is not over yet and the mercury is touching 49 degrees! Know what the Meteorological Department said about 'Heat Hunter'

The birth of El Niño and La Niña is still a mystery

The world's scientists, environmentalists and geographers may have spoken a lot about the effects of El Nino or La Nina, but till date it has not been known how El Nino or La Nina suddenly takes birth in the ocean. How it starts is still a mystery. Due to El Nino, drought and floods occur in most parts of the world. This is also the reason behind severe heat. This is also a big reason for the increase in the number of fish in the ocean.


The mercury remained close to 50.5 in Churu and 50 in Sirsa

The temperature in Churu city of Rajasthan has hit half century. Yes, on Tuesday the temperature here was recorded at 50.5 degree Celsius. At the same time, the temperature of Sirsa in Haryana also reached close to 50. According to IMD, the temperature of Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand, Bihar, Punjab, Chhattisgarh and Odisha was recorded above 49 to 47 degree Celsius.

Alert of severe heat and heatwave for three days

According to the Meteorological Department, severe heat is expected to continue till May 29-30 in Delhi, Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana, Chandigarh, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Chhattisgarh and parts of Maharashtra.

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