Explained: Neither BJP nor Congress in 4-5 states, regional parties became kings or kingmakers, should there be a two party system in India too

Ananya Shroff
10 Min Read

New Delhi: In the Lok Sabha elections 2024, the dominance of regional parties has once again increased in Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, Maharashtra, Kerala, Karnataka and Uttar Pradesh. These regional parties are either in a position to form the government or are in the role of kingmakers. In such a situation, once again the debate has gained momentum whether India should also have a 2 party system like America. Is the mind of the voters moving towards a 2 party system? What do the voters think? Let us understand what is a 2 party system? Is the country showing more trust in regional parties? What is going on in the minds of the voters?

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For the first time in 1977, 11 parties formed a coalition government

In 1977, for the first time, 11 parties formed a coalition government at the centre under the leadership of Morarji Desai. After this, Chaudhary Charan Singh formed a coalition government in 1979. Then VP Singh, Chandrashekhar, HD Devegowda formed a coalition government.

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The first minority government of the country was that of Narasimha Rao.

The first minority government in the country was the government of Narasimha Rao, which came to power after the assassination of Rajiv Gandhi. After this, the first 13-day government of Atal Bihari Vajpayee was formed, which was coalition based.

The United Front government is also a coalition government

The United Front government was formed by 13 parties. First HD Devegowda and then Inder Kumar Gujral became its Prime Minister. After this, Vajpayee returned again in 1998 and formed the National Democratic Alliance (NDA) government, which was supported by Jayalalitha's AIADMK government. Between 1999 and 2004, the NDA formed the government, which was formed with the support of 20 allies. At that time, the Congress, which was in the opposition, formed a coalition of 14 parties, the United Progressive Alliance (UPA).

Abhi India Alliance is a coalition of 27 parties

In current politics, the Congress-led All India Alliance is composed of 27 parties, while the BJP-led NDA alliance is composed of 38 parties.

America has a two party system

American politics has a two-party system, where only the Democrat and Republican parties contest for power. In Britain too, politics is divided between the Labor Party and the Conservative Party. Australia too has two political systems, where there is the Australian Labor Party and the Liberal National Coalition. Actually, these countries have less population and diversity, so this system is suitable for these countries.


There are three types of party systems in the world, what about China and Pakistan?

First- One party system means that in this political system only one party is given the command to form and run the government. Usually only one party runs the government of the country. For example, in China only the Communist Party runs the government. Its head is the head of the country.
Second- The two-party system means that there are only two parties in this political system. In this, the party which gets the most seats in the election forms the government. This is the system in America and Britain.
third- A system with more than two political parties is called a multiparty system. In this, either one party forms a government with a majority or forms a coalition government with the support of many parties. This is the system in India, Brazil and South Africa.


There are many challenges of the 2 party system, understand them here

-In this, one party can become extreme to show itself different from the other. This can increase enmity and can hinder government work. That is, there can be problems in running the government.
– If there are two political parties, the general public may get disillusioned. They will not get any alternative. On the other hand, if there are regional parties, people will not get any alternative.
-If there are only two parties, people may lose faith in the political system or they may even get bored. Their interest in politics may also decrease.

In India, there is 1 MP for every 22 lakh population, far behind America

The Constitution of India does not impose any restriction on forming a political party. In this country with a population of 140 crores, the number of representatives is less than the population. In America, there is one MP for a population of 7 lakhs, whereas in India one MP represents 22 lakh people.


Duverger's theory failed in India, what is the reason behind this?

The separation of national and state elections in 1971 also gave a big boost to the division of parties. Supporters of a local issue or a limited caste can bring a small leader to power. Once such a party gets a slight lead in the state elections, it also tries to win some parliamentary seats. This is also a big reason for the emergence of many parties in India. French political scientist Maurice Duverger had said in 1951 that the majority single vote system usually establishes a two-party system. Duverger's theory has failed in Britain and India. In India, there are only small constituencies to elect MLAs and MPs, so these small parties emerge in only a few elections and their scope is also not at the national level.

There is an undeclared two-party system in these states of the country

In a two-party system, the one who has the support of the majority wins. There are many countries like America, England, Australia where the election battle is only between the two biggest parties and the smaller parties get very little public support. On the other hand, there are countries like Japan, Israel and Italy where there is a multiparty system and governments keep forming and falling. In India, regional parties have been ruling informally in states like Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Goa, Punjab and Himachal Pradesh.

The two-party system also has several definite advantages

The two-party system has both advantages and disadvantages. This system ensures political stability in the country. There is no horse-trading of MLAs and MPs. Ticket distribution is also done in a democratic manner. There are several rounds of voting among the candidates for the ticket and finally the ticket is given to the one who is most popular in his party. There is no voting in the name of religion or caste in the elections and voters have to take a simple decision as to whom they want to vote for. The level of debate in the Parliament becomes very high, because those who get elected have complete information about their region, state and country.

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The Constitution makers chose the parliamentary system for India

The Constituent Assembly chose the parliamentary system of government in India because it was effective in Indian conditions. The Constitution makers gave more importance to accountability than stability. They considered the government to be accountable to the citizens. In such a situation, despite many anomalies including divisions on the basis of caste, language, province and religion, India is the largest democracy in the world. Even if there is coalition politics here, criminalization in politics, lack of policy continuity in the democratic system, but due to this concept of pluralism, the democratic system is effective in India. In this, the executive and the legislature complement each other.

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